Get Aristotle's Theory of Language and its Tradition: Texts from PDF

By Arens, Hans; Aristotle, Aristotle., Aristote

ISBN-10: 9027245118

ISBN-13: 9789027245113

ISBN-10: 9027279942

ISBN-13: 9789027279941

This quantity encompasses a fragment from Aristotle’s Peri Hermeneias [16a1–17a7], with a translation into English and a remark. This fragment is important to the certainty of Aristotle’s considering language. it's via (translations of) commentaries on Aristotle’s textual content through students among 500 and 1750, displaying how his textual content was once perceived through the years. The commentaries are by means of Ammonius, Boethius, Abelaerd, Albertus Magnus, Thomas Acquinas, Martinus de Dacia, Johannes a S. Thoma, and James Harris. each one observation is in flip commented upon through the compiler of this quantity

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Additional resources for Aristotle's Theory of Language and its Tradition: Texts from 500 to 1750, sel., transl. and commentary by Hans Arens

Example text

The important consequence of Aristotle's theory is the correspondence of notion and thing (a wrong notion is said to be no notion), which is the precondition of the inter­ pretation of reality (thingness and world of things) in a proposition that is true. The relation of the word to the mental impression (pathema) is that of a sign or symbol, the relation of the mental impression to the thing is that of a likeness or image (homoioma). Now the concrete thing, a single real object can only leave its individual picture in the soul or on the photographic plate, and only something like it can be imagined or evoked before 'the mind's eye', for instance, a tree in the form of an oak or pine or pop­ lar, whereas the word signifies a notion, the genus tree, not a species nor an individual appearance.

The notions can only be the same of the same things, that is, the identity of the things is the precondition of the identity of notions, and so Aristotle's statement would be a tautology. On the other hand, it must have been obvi­ ous that the things were not at all the same for all, as the diverse peoples lived in diverse surroundings, so dif­ ferent indeed that to some the forest, to others the moun­ tain, to others the sea was unknown. This, then, cannot be the meaning. Therefore the sameness of the things can only mean their existence outside man and independent of him, their objectiveness: as a whole they are the same to the whole of mankind; and further, it may mean this: The things are the same to all, that is: a cow is a cow, a river is a river, a bird is a bird to every human being, that is: everyone perceives an animal as different from an inanimate thing, a horse as different from a man, Socrates as diffe­ rent from Plato, that is: the genus and the species and the individual are each the same in everyone's perception, and everyone will give different definitions of them, but all will give the same of each; and only what they are by defi­ nition and is expressed in a proposition counts here.

This is not really a confusion if we consider that rhema is verb as well as predicate and that the protasis is an apophansis or apophantikos logos in special use. There is no distinction between time and tense. "The present time" is expressed by , which is exact and literal, it might also be , which is equivocal. "The time before and after" is expressed by 11 " (sc. ) , that is: 'the (time) around (the present)'. But he does not determine what he means by "present", perhaps because it can only mean the timeless present, of which he thought when he said (9) "whether ab­ solutely or temporally"?

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Aristotle's Theory of Language and its Tradition: Texts from 500 to 1750, sel., transl. and commentary by Hans Arens by Arens, Hans; Aristotle, Aristotle., Aristote

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