By W. von Leyden
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16 A characteristic of all common terms is that they are peculiar to no one special scientific discipline ('topic-neutral', as Gilbert Ryle has called them), 17 but are common to (or, as Ryle puts it, 'pervade') them all. In a similar way, J. L. Austin 18 speaks of'the same', 'one', 'real', 'good', as substantive-hungry or dimension-words. His reason for the terminology is that the words in question do not have one single and identical meaning like 'yellow', 'horse' or 'walk', but are general in application and are in fact the most comprehensive terms.
Characteristic features of this radical democracy are (a) an increased population, and (b) a corresponding increase in public revenue. It follows that, owing to a system ofstate-payment,66 large numbers of people can join in political activity, and also that leisure facilities are now available for the enlarged lower classes, including the poor. Because of the frequency of popular meetings, the ordinary people (rather than the law) will become sovereign. 67 This, then, is the backbone of Aristotle's classification of the four kinds of democracy.
These particular forms of community, he considers, are all parts of the political one. However, whereas the former aim at particular advantages or at what is temporally expedient, the aim of a body politic is for the common advantage and for the good of life as a whole. Now, as we have seen earlier, 5 ifthere is common action or a commercial exchange between people, the people in question might well be different if not unequal, though they will share sufficiently in some general interest to feel impelled to undertake the common action or the mutual dealings.
Aristotle on Equality and Justice: His Political Argument by W. von Leyden