By Lex de Haan, Toon Koppelaars

ISBN-10: 1590597451

ISBN-13: 9781590597453

Relational databases carry information, correct? They certainly do, yet to think about a database as not anything greater than a box for facts is to overlook out at the profound strength that underlies relational know-how. a much more strong state of mind lies in relational applied sciences starting place within the mathematical disciplines of common sense and set theory.

Databases include truths or propositions describing a few niche akin to a enterprise. these truths are equipped into units. Operations from good judgment and set conception might be utilized to current units of truths to derive new units of truths. *Applied arithmetic for Database Professionals* introduces you to this manner of pondering, to the common sense and set thought that underlies relational database know-how. All this can sound summary now, yet there are profound merits from the deeper realizing you'll achieve from this e-book. You'll research to

* develop into a greater database clothier. You'll make fewer errors, and your designs could be extra versatile based on altering information needs.

* Use the expressive strength of arithmetic to exactly specify designs and enterprise rules.

* converse successfully approximately layout utilizing the common language of mathematics.

* improve and write advanced SQL statements with confidence.

* steer clear of pitfalls and difficulties from universal relational bugaboos resembling null values and replica rows.

The math that you just research during this booklet will positioned you above the extent of realizing of so much database pros this present day. You'll larger comprehend the expertise and manage to practice it extra successfully. You'll stay away from facts anomalies like redundancy and inconsistency. figuring out whats during this booklet will take your mastery of relational expertise to heights you'll now not have notion possible.

This ebook is reviewed and recommended by way of C. J. Date and contours a foreword via the same.

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**Extra info for Applied Mathematics for Database Professionals**

**Example text**

However, in this book we prefer to use the # symbol, as used in Definition 2-2, to denote the cardinality operator, because we use the vertical bar already quite heavily in predicative and substitutive set specifications. ■Definition 2-2: Cardinality of a Set The cardinality of a (finite) set S is the number of elements in S, denoted by #S. ■Note There is also a cardinality concept for infinite sets, but that won’t be discussed in this book. Listing 2-5 shows some examples of sets and their cardinality.

Note The first characters of these words signify operator precedence in arithmetic: Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction. Even when a language defines formal operator precedence rules—allowing you to omit parentheses in certain expressions—it still is a good idea to use them for enhanced readability. It isn’t wrong to include parentheses that could be omitted without changing the meaning. qxd 5/4/07 1:38 PM Page 11 CHAPTER 1 ■ LOGIC: INTRODUCTION The readability of the last example is definitely enhanced by including the parentheses.

Singleton Sets Listing 2-5 shows two examples of sets with cardinality one—the second and the last example. Sets with exactly one element are called a singleton (see Definition 2-3). ■Definition 2-3: Singleton A singleton is a set with exactly one element. Note that a singleton is still a set; therefore, {42} is not the same as 42. {42} is a set and 42—its only element—is an integer value. Be careful; it is a common mistake to mix up a singleton set with the element it contains. qxd 30 5/4/07 2:12 PM Page 30 CHAPTER 2 ■ SET THEORY: INTRODUCTION The Choose Operator We introduce a special operator that allows you to “extract” or “choose” the single element from a singleton set.

### Applied Mathematics for Database Professionals by Lex de Haan, Toon Koppelaars

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