By Peter B. Golden
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168-169 gives a brief listing. 37 See L. Kwanten, Tangut and for a survey of the data on Tangut ethnogenesis, see Dunnell, 1984, pp. 78-89. INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES 30 Sardinian, Rhaeto-Romansb, Rumanian), Ancient Anatolian (now extinct : Hittite, Luwi, Palâ, Lydian, Lycian), Tokbarian (see below), Celtic (Irish, Scots Gaelic, Welsb, Breton), Germanie (Modern English, Frisian, Dutch, German, lcelandic, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian), Slavic (Modem : Eastern : Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Western: Wendish/Sorbian, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Southem : Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Bulgarian), Baltic (Old Prussian, now extinct, Lithuanian and Latvian), Albanian.
Alma "apple" = IE *âbluj*ab(a)lo/*aplu/ *ap(a)la > Old Slav. ablilko, Prus. woble, Uth. 6bu, 6balas, Latv. âbele, Old lee. reppel, Gall. avallo, Old Ir. ubull Hitt. " These derive from *sam(a)lu in which the s becomes s in Hittite and disappears elsewhere. 39 Of similar antiquity are Turk. ôküz "ox," Mong. üker, Monguor 38 Gamkrelidze, Ivanov, lndoevropejcy, Il, p. 554. Rôna-Tas, 1988a, pp. 393-395 questions this formulation, dismissing the Chinese comparison and noting that Tibetan ha< rt>t "hnro• " the form *rm~- thnc: 1c ""' ............
We shall have occasion to return to this subject. y replaced by Cyrillic in the USSR and MPR) is based on the Uygur alphabet which was ultimately of Syriac origin. MODERN MONGOUC Western Mongolie Oirat, spoken in Inner and Outer Mongolia and the closely related Kalmuk (which is derived from it) spoken in the Kalmyk ASSR,USSR by 146,631 speakers. 29 Monguor (160,000 in Kansu Province, China). Related toit are: Santa/Tung-hsian [Dongxian] (280,000), Pao' an (9000)30 and the Mongolie dialect spoken by the Sera Yogurs.
An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East by Peter B. Golden