By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough reviews ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar studies the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse gains of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o indicates many strange typological positive aspects, together with cut up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our knowing of the advance of the Uto-Aztecan family members of languages in historic and areal standpoint.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
Stressed vowels are written with underline, except where 11 12 Phonology stress falls on the initial syllable of the root, the most common situation, where stress is not marked. 1. ’, pinga ‘on the road’, puul ‘Indian doctor’ b. as coda: apcha’apcha’ash ‘turned-up, of nose’ a. (2) /t/ as onset: tamit ‘day, sun’, tel ‘comet’, tingela’ash ‘medicine’, tukut ‘wildcat’ b. as coda: atme’el ‘toothache’, meet ‘gopher’, pit ‘road’ a. (3) /k/ as onset: Kavaly ‘the Kavaly lineage’, kelel ‘manzanita bush’, kinga ‘in the house’, Kupa ‘Cupa’ (place name) b.
Luis Barragan and Heather Newell (personal communication) have pointed out that in general, stressless verbs are “light,” involving motion and position. kwa -s ‘eat’ and muu -s ‘shoot with a bow’ (probably from *muhu) are exceptions to this generalization. Thus the peculiar behavior of kwa -s may occur because it is marginal to the set of stressless roots. Muu -s is less well attested and in the imperfective almost always appears reduplicated as mum, with the secondary aspect marker -aan which obscures the behavior of the root.
52) Ni=pe-yax=’ep. 1 S O -3 S -S A Y = R He said to me. (Faye Tramp 75 018 ) The object proclitics, in contrast to the subject and possessor prefixes, are not stressed when they appear with unstressed roots. 2. (53) Chem=che=pe ishmivi-y i=max. F We will give something to you. (2 43 478 ) The stressless verb root kwa -s ‘eat’ behaves differently from the other stressless roots. , kwaqa ‘is eating’, kwanash ‘will be eating’. , qwa’iqat ‘is gonna eat’, peqwa’ivichuqal ‘3 S was wanting to eat’. Luis Barragan and Heather Newell (personal communication) have pointed out that in general, stressless verbs are “light,” involving motion and position.
A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics) by Jane H. Hill