By Leften Stavrianos
Designed for classes in global historical past and global Civilization, this best-selling, vintage exploration of global heritage takes an interdisciplinary worldwide (rather than a nearby or nationwide) approach—tracing these significant forces, activities, and occasions that experience had a world-wide impression. It stresses connections among the previous, current and destiny, emphasizing the query “What does it suggest for us today?” The Seventh Edition reevaluates the process human historical past with an eye fixed towards the millennium, reflecting in its assurance the tip of the chilly conflict and the dawning probabilities for a brand new form of international historical past.
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Additional resources for A Global History: From Prehistory to the 21st Century
103. Richard A. Gabriel, Soldiers’ Lives through History: Antiquity (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2007), chapter 5 “Rations,” 31–38. 104. Ibid. 105. ,” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 43, no. 8 (August 1967): 767–68. 106. Morris Kerstein and Roger Hubbards, “Heat Related Problems in the Desert: The Environment Can Be the Enemy,” Military Medicine 149 (December 1984): 650–56. 107. , 653. 108. , 654. 109. Alan Steinman, “Adverse Effects of Heat and Cold on Military Operations: History and Current Solutions,” Military Medicine 152 (August 1987): 389.
It is common where sanitation is poor, and human and animal waste is present. If a soldier’s wound was not thoroughly cleansed with water, soap, or wine, or was sutured or bandaged too quickly or tightly, resultant tetanus infection was almost a certainty. The ancient medical practice of leaving a wound open for several days before closing it with sutures or bandages produced far fewer tetanus infections than the practice of rapid closure that was employed after ancient times until the early days of World War I.
In desert or semiarid climates, especially those with high temperatures and low humidity, the soldier requires a minimum of nine quarts of water a day. These minimal nutritional requirements will keep the soldier functioning for only a few days. If nutritional requirements are kept at this level over a march of seven to ten days, many soldiers would be unable to fight, even if they suffered no additional injuries or health impairments. The diet of the ancient soldier was barely sufficient for sustained military activities.
A Global History: From Prehistory to the 21st Century by Leften Stavrianos